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I have, happily, not seen much of the distressing flight of the Antwerp population, as I happened to be at Lige when the fortress fell into German hands. I went to Zundert via Maastricht and Breda, in order to go to the conquered fortress from that Netherland frontier-town, north-east of Antwerp. On Alexanders departure for the East, Aristotle returned to Athens, where he now placed himself at the head of a new philosophical school. The ensuing period of thirteen years288 was fully occupied by the delivery of public lectures, and by the composition of those encyclopaedic writings which will preserve his memory for ever, along, perhaps, with many others which have not survived. Like Anaxagoras, he was not allowed to end his days in the city of his adoption. His youthful attacks on Isocrates had probably made him many enemies among that rhetors pupils. It is supposed by Grote, but warmly disputed by Zeller, that his trenchant criticisms on Plato had excited a similar animosity among the sectaries of the Academy.178 Anyhow, circumstances had unavoidably associated him with the detested Macedonian party, although his position, as a metic, or resident alien, debarred him from taking any active part in politics. With Alexanders death the storm broke loose. A charge was trumped up against Aristotle, on the strength of his unlucky poem in honour of Hermeias, which was described as an insult to religion. That such an accusation should be chosen is characteristic of Athenian bigotry, even should there be no truth in the story that certain philosophical opinions of his were likewise singled out for prosecution. Before the case came on for trial, Aristotle availed himself of the usual privilege allowed on such occasions, and withdrew to Chalcis, in order, as he said, that the Athenians need not sin a second time against philosophy. But his constitution, naturally a feeble one, was nearly worn out. A year afterwards he succumbed to a stomach complaint, aggravated, if not produced, by incessant mental application. His contemporary, Demosthenes, perished about the same time, and at the same age, sixty-two. Within little more than a twelvemonth the world had lost its three greatest men; and after three centuries of uninterrupted glory, Hellas was left unrepresented by a single individual of commanding genius. Another principle in planing machines which deserves notice is the manner of driving carriages or platens; this is usually performed by means of spur wheels and a rack. A rack movement is smooth enough, and effective enough so far as a mechanical connection between the driving gearing and a platen, but there is a difficulty met with from the torsion and elasticity of cross-shafts and a train of reducing gearing. In all other machines for metal cutting, it has been a studied object to have the supports for both the tools and the material as rigid as possible; but in the common type of planing machines, such as have rack and pinion movement, there is a controversion of this principle, inasmuch as a train of wheels and several cross-shafts constitute a very effective spring between the driving power and the point of cutting, a matter that is easily proved by planing across the teeth of a rack, or the threads of a screw, on a machine arranged with spur wheels and the ordinary reducing gearing. It is true the inertia of a platen is interposed and in a measure overcomes this elasticity, but in no degree that amounts to a remedy. III